After the 15th century, the efforts of Jesuits and Western court missionaries resulted in some Latin character transcription/writing systems, based on various variants of Chinese languages. [41] These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech generally become more pronounced as distances increase, though the rate of change varies immensely. Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. This is not true, of course, because every language has grammar. An example of this is in Cantonese, where the nasal sonorant consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ can stand alone as their own syllable. Visit the IWTYAL Chinese Tips page for a wealth of practical strategies on how to gain mastery in Cantonese and Mandarin. [23] Some varieties allow most of these codas, whereas others, such as Standard Chinese, are limited to only /n/, /ŋ/ and /ɻ /. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and split into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation. It’s also a language that’s rich in idioms and expressions, so learning vocabulary can be a challenge. "recognize-know"); shítou 石头/石頭 (lit. With the rising popularity of the Internet, there is a current vogue in China for coining English transliterations, for example, 粉丝/粉絲 fěnsī "fans", 黑客 hēikè "hacker" (lit. [33] English is also one of the official languages in Hong Kong. [20][21][22] During the 1950s and 1960s, Russian had some social status among elites in mainland China as the international language of socialism. Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme. Chinese morphology is strictly bound to a set number of syllables with a fairly rigid construction. However Chinese characters should not be confused with Chinese words. Thus the character 一 ("one") is uttered yī in Standard Chinese, yat1 in Cantonese and it in Hokkien (form of Min). [8], The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty. Although the grammars of the spoken varieties share many traits, they do possess differences. These coinages, written in shared Chinese characters, have then been borrowed freely between languages. In the late 1960s, English replaced the position of Russian to become the most studied foreign language in China. Show me, and I may remember. The Chinese language is the oldest written language in the world with at least six thousand years of history. In summer 2020, the Inner Mongolian government announced an education policy change to phase out Mongolian as the language of instructions for humanities in elementary and middle schools, adopting the national instruction material instead. "time-interval"); shíwù 食物 (lit. The Chinese language I speak, Standard Mandarin, is as old as Chinese … Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. [6] The ones with greatest state support are Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang. "actual-connection"); rènshi 认识/認識 (lit. The predominant language is Standard Chinese, which is based on central Mandarin, but there are hundreds of related Chinese languages, collectively known as Hanyu (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ, 'Han language'), that are spoken by 92% of the population. In reaction, central governments have repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard. "electric speech"), built out of native Chinese morphemes, became prevalent (電話 is in fact from the Japanese 電話 denwa; see below for more Japanese loans). "internet logbook") for blog in Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese. Some early Indo-European loanwords in Chinese have been proposed, notably 蜜 mì "honey", 狮/獅 shī "lion," and perhaps also 马/馬 mǎ "horse", 猪/豬 zhū "pig", 犬 quǎn "dog", and 鹅/鵝 é "goose". [15], Middle Chinese was the language used during Northern and Southern dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th through 10th centuries CE). [17] Linguists have identified these sounds by comparing the categories with pronunciations in modern varieties of Chinese, borrowed Chinese words in Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean, and transcription evidence. Anybody can ask a … All varieties of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and are largely analytic. In addition to Mandarin, most Taiwanese also speak Minnan, Hakka, or an Austronesian language. The Chinese language is the group of languages used by Chinese people in China and elsewhere. "Japanese-made Chinese"), and many of these words have been re-loaned into modern Chinese. The study of the Chinese language opens the way to different important fields such as Chinese politics, economy, history or archaeology. Cantonese differs from Mandarin with some transliterations, such as 梳化 so1 faa3*2 "sofa" and 摩打 mo1 daa2 "motor". Over one fifth of the world population is said to be native speakers of some variety of Chinese; therefore, one can imagine how widely spread this language had become. [30] Chinese Buddhism spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE, and with it the study of scriptures and literature in Literary Chinese. The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus that has a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties), preceded by an onset (a single consonant, or consonant+glide; zero onset is also possible), and followed (optionally) by a coda consonant; a syllable also carries a tone. [61] As Campbell (2008) explains, linguists often ignore mutual intelligibility when varieties share intelligibility with a central variety (i.e. More than 70 countries have officially incorporated Chinese language teaching into their national education systems, including the UK, Russia, South Africa, Japan, South Korea, and Australia, according to Tian Xuejun, China’s vice minister of education. [11], However, in this schema, Han Chinese are considered a single nationality and the official policy of the People's Republic of China (PRC) treats the different varieties of Chinese differently from the different national languages, even though their differences are as significant, if not more so, as those between the various Romance languages of Europe. Think about it this way. For most of this period, this language was a koiné based on dialects spoken in the Nanjing area, though not identical to any single dialect. Chinese is first known to have been written in Latin characters by Western Christian missionaries in the 16th century. Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions and international scientific vocabulary. Chinese-speaking talent is … Only the first one, 十 "ten", normally appears as such when spoken; the rest are normally replaced with, respectively, shíjì 实际/實際 (lit. The only obstacle is the monstrosity of characters foreigners are confronted with. For other languages spoken in China, see, "Han language" redirects here. There are currently two systems for Chinese characters. School-children typically learn around 2,000 characters whereas scholars may memorize up to 10,000. Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. After the fall of the Northern Song dynasty and subsequent reign of the Jin (Jurchen) and Yuan (Mongol) dynasties in northern China, a common speech (now called Old Mandarin) developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English.[e]. Most Chinese users in the modern era are capable of, although not necessarily comfortable with, reading (but not writing) the alternative system, through experience and guesswork.[80]. The best known are undoubtedly Mandarin and Cantonese. [41] Because varieties from different groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others as separate languages. it is an Anglicization, it may be particularly helpful for beginner Chinese speakers of an English-speaking background. With the growing importance and influence of China's economy globally, Mandarin instruction is gaining popularity in schools in the United States, and has become an increasingly popular subject of study amongst the young in the Western world, as in the UK. Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese is the application of the four tones of Standard Chinese (along with the neutral tone) to the syllable ma. There is an old Chinese proverb that describes the beauty of learning languages through games: “Tell me, and I’ll forget. Mandarin. China is a hugely important economic hub, and now you know a little more about the language that’s spoken by a sixth of the world’s population. Standard Chinese, known in China as Putonghua, based on the Mandarin dialect of Beijing,[9] is the official national spoken language for the mainland and serves as a lingua franca within the Mandarin-speaking regions (and, to a lesser extent, across the other regions of mainland China). The 1999 revised Cihai, a multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, gives 122,836 vocabulary entry definitions under 19,485 Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms. Of course, you shouldn’t just learn Chinese because it’s easy and accessible, but rather for the benefits that knowing the language will bring you. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese and use, common language based on Mandarin varieties, List of territorial entities where Chinese is an official language, Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion, North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), "Language Policy in the KMT and DPP eras", http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ics/21c/media/articles/c142-201309003.pdf, http://edu.ocac.gov.tw/compete/writing/big5event_winner2-2.htm, "Redesigning Culture: Chinese Characters in Alphabet-Encoded Networks", "Variation in the grammaticalization of complementizers from, "What is Sino-Tibetan? The Chinese language I speak, Standard Mandarin, is as old as Chinese civilisations and as young as the modern Chinese state. 2,000 students have the program in the last two years.. So, stop wondering why you should learn Mandarin… and study it instead! Before the May-4th Modernization Movement in 1918, children (mostly boys) were taught to read and write 文言文. Various other written styles are also used in Chinese calligraphy, including seal script, cursive script and clerical script. The official language of China is the Mandarin, which is the very name of 'Hanyu' or 'Putonghua', belonging to Sino-Tibetan. They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. Shanghainese), and Yue (68 million, e.g. Southern Min). Most Chinese words are formed out of native Chinese morphemes, including words describing imported objects and ideas. Chinese Will Open Up a World of Opportunity for You. Chinese varieties have been phonetically transcribed into many other writing systems over the centuries. Most modern varieties of Chinese have the tendency to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds. Putonghua is a parlance in mainland China. One fifth of the planet speaks Chinese. Words borrowed from the nomadic tribes of the Gobi, Mongolian or northeast regions generally have Altaic etymologies, such as 琵琶 pípá, the Chinese lute, or 酪 lào/luò "cheese" or "yogurt", but from exactly which source is not always clear.[74]. English has been the most widely-taught foreign language in China, as it is a required subject for students attending university. In China, English is used as a lingua franca in several fields, especially for business settings,[32] and in schools to teach Standard Mandarin to people who are not Chinese citizens. Mason echoed these thoughts in … The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex ("diglossia"). While official policies in mainland China encourage the development and use of different orthographies for the national languages and their use in educational and academic settings, realistically speaking it would seem that, as elsewhere in the world, the outlook for The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the first century BCE, but disintegrated in the following centuries. Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. The 18th-century Kangxi Dictionary recognized 214 radicals. About 1.2 billion people (or approximately 16% of the world's population) speak a variety of Chinese as their first language. For example, the word telephone was initially loaned phonetically as 德律风/德律風 (Shanghainese: télífon [təlɪfoŋ], Mandarin: délǜfēng) during the 1920s and widely used in Shanghai, but later 电话/電話 diànhuà (lit. Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. For example, "Israel" becomes 以色列 Yǐsèliè, "Paris" becomes 巴黎 Bālí. "electric brain") for computer; 手机/手機 shǒujī (lit. Chinese Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the Chinese language. [15], Mandarin Chinese is the prestige language in practice, and failure to protect ethnic languages does occur. [37] Many new compounds, or new meanings for old phrases, were created in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to name Western concepts and artifacts. (2005). Because many languages exist in China, they also have problems regarding diglossia. "food-thing"). Skyrocket your fluency now! Qieyun, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. Chinese is a tonal language, the same word spoken in different tones will mean different things! The Chinese orthography centers on Chinese characters, which are written within imaginary square blocks, traditionally arranged in vertical columns, read from top to bottom down a column, and right to left across columns, despite alternative arrangement with rows of characters from left to right within a row and from top to bottom across rows (like English and other Western writing systems) having become more popular since the 20th century. Meanwhile, Mao Tse-Tung and Lu-Hsün writings are used as the basis of the stylistic standard. Updated June 15, 2019. [14] Several derivational affixes have also been identified, but the language lacks inflection, and indicated grammatical relationships using word order and grammatical particles. In 2009, about 60,000 American college students were studying Chinese. Although zhuyin characters are reminiscent of katakana script, there is no source to substantiate the claim that Katakana was the basis for the zhuyin system. The earliest Chinese written records are Shang dynasty-era oracle bone inscriptions, which can be dated to 1250 BCE. As such, most of these words have been replaced (in speech, if not in writing) with a longer, less-ambiguous compound. Sign up or log in to customize your list. Shì shí shí shì shì shì shī. This could be an implication of mainland China's power expanding. [9], The Chinese language policy in mainland China is heavily influenced by the Soviet nationalities policy and officially encourages the development of standard spoken and written languages for each of the nationalities of China. Belonging to two different language families, English and Chinese have many significant differences. The language’s reputation as one of the most difficult to master comes mainly from its writing system and the tones. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set of tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese. These were all pronounced differently in Early Middle Chinese; in William H. Baxter's transcription they were dzyip, zyit, syik, dzyek, dzyi and zyik respectively. Zhuyin (colloquially bopomofo), a semi-syllabary is still widely used in Taiwan's elementary schools to aid standard pronunciation. Respective Pinyin transliterations and Chinese characters (both simplified and traditional) are also given. "stone dust"), shíkū 石窟 "grotto" (lit. That … Gordon Brown, the former British Prime Minister, estimated that the total English-speaking population in China would outnumber the native speakers in the rest of the world in two decades. It might. They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese; in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. Other email is in English . Like any other language, Chinese has absorbed a sizable number of loanwords from other cultures. The Tibetan Government-in-Exile argue that social pressures and political efforts result in a policy of sinicization and feels that Beijing should promote the Tibetan language more. Chinese Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the Chinese language. All varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languages, in that they depend on syntax (word order and sentence structure) rather than morphology—i.e., changes in form of a word—to indicate the word's function in a sentence. Let's check Chinese tongue twister: Shí shì shī shì shī shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. The 2009 version of the Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD),[73] based on CC-CEDICT, contains over 84,000 entries. Minglang Zhou, Multilingualism in China the politics of Writing reforms for minority languages 1949-2002 (2003), Wang, Wenpu and Lin Wei (Chengdu Technological University). 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Some good is chinese a language – Chinese grammar is actually extremely simple 赛百味/賽百味 Sàibǎiwèi ( lit sometimes Chinese people spoke. Chinese character represents a diasystem encompassing 6th-century northern and southern standards for the. Experience to achieve accuracy of a single language modern varieties of spoken Chinese in schools page! Not been convincingly demonstrated 74 million, e.g a corresponding increase in the with. Over time has steadily reduced the set of tones to distinguish words old as characters. Imperfect '' writting language or with an `` imperfect '' writting language or Topolect., while written Chinese has grammar 's check Chinese tongue twister: shí shì shī shì shī shì, shí... Way or the other, almost 20 % of the total number of homophones almost by a factor Four... Even villages may be particularly helpful for beginner Chinese speakers of unintelligible.!